Examine Political Science as a Science


Political science is a discipline that seeks to understand and analyze political phenomena, institutions, and processes. While some argue that political science as a science cannot be considered a true science due to its reliance on human behavior and subjective interpretations , others maintain that it possesses the essential characteristics of a science. Basically This assignment aims to examine political science as a science by exploring its methodologies, theories, empirical research, and contributions to society.

Examine Political Science as a Science

Methodologies in Political Science:

  • Comparative Method: Political scientists employ comparative analysis to examine on political science as a science similarities and differences among political systems, institutions, and behaviors, allowing for the identification of patterns and causal relationships.
  • Quantitative Research: Comparatively Political science as a science extensively uses statistical methods and data analysis to study political phenomena, such as voting behavior, public opinion, and policy outcomes.
  • Qualitative Research: Through case studies, interviews, and textual analysis, qualitative research in political science provides in-depth insights into complex political phenomena, individual experiences, and political discourse.

Theories in Political Science:

  • Systems Theory: Political scientists apply systems theory to study the interrelationships and interactions between various components of a political system, including institutions, actors, and processes.
  • Rational Choice Theory: According to this theory assumes that individuals make decisions based on their self-interest, allowing political scientists to analyze political behavior, voting patterns, and policy choices.
  • Constructivism: Constructivism focuses on the role of ideas, norms, and beliefs in shaping political behavior and outcomes, providing an alternative perspective to understanding international relations and political change.
  • Institutionalism: Institutionalism examines the role of institutions in shaping political processes and outcomes. This theoretical framework emphasizes the impact of formal and informal rules, norms, and organizational structures on behavior, decision-making, and policy implementation.
  • Pluralism: Pluralism theory posits that political power is distributed among various interest groups and that policy outcomes are the result of bargaining and compromise among these groups. Pluralist theories analyze the influence of interest groups, lobbying, and social movements on policy formation.
  • Marxism: Derived from the works of Karl Marx, Marxist theory analyzes political phenomena through the lens of class struggle, economic structures, and power dynamics. Marxist perspectives explore the relationship between social classes, economic systems, and political power, focusing on issues of inequality, exploitation, and social change.
  • Feminism: Feminist theories in political science focus on understanding gender dynamics, power relations, and the role of women in politics. These theories examine the impact of gender on political institutions, policies, and decision-making processes, seeking to address issues of gender equality and social justice.
  • Postcolonialism: Postcolonial theories analyze the legacies of colonialism and imperialism on political systems, identities, and power dynamics. These theories critically examine the impact of colonial history, cultural hegemony, and discourses of power on postcolonial societies and their political structures

Empirical Research:

  • Elections and Voting Behavior: To examine political science as a science Political scientists conduct empirical research to analyze voting patterns, factors influencing electoral outcomes, and voter behavior, because they contributing to our understanding of democratic processes.
  • Public Policy Analysis: According to the empirical studies, political scientists assess the effectiveness and impact of public policies, helping policymakers make informed decisions and improve governance.
  • International Relations: Comparatively Empirical research in political science examines factors influencing conflict, cooperation, and international institutions, aiding in the development of foreign policy strategies and peacebuilding initiatives.
  • Comparative Politics: Empirical research in comparative politics involves comparing political systems, institutions, and behaviors across different countries and regions. By collecting and analyzing data from multiple contexts, researchers identify patterns, similarities, and differences, enabling cross-national comparisons and the identification of causal relationships.
  • International Relations: Empirical research in international relations examines factors influencing conflict, cooperation, and international institutions. Through quantitative and qualitative methods, political scientists gather data to study interstate relations, diplomatic negotiations, and the impact of global events, contributing to the development of foreign policy strategies.

Contributions to Society

  • Policy Recommendations: Political scientists provide evidence-based policy recommendations on various issues, also including social welfare, environmental sustainability, and economic development, aiding governments and policymakers in making informed decisions.
  • Understanding Political Behavior: Political science research enhances our understanding of political attitudes, social movements, and political participation, contributing to a more informed and engaged citizenry.
  • Democratic Governance: By studying democratic processes, institutions, and challenges, political science plays a crucial role in promoting democratic values, strengthening institutions, and fostering good governance practices.
  • Evidence-based Policy Recommendations: Political science provides policymakers with evidence-based policy recommendations on a wide range of issues, such as healthcare, education, and environmental regulations. By analyzing data, conducting research, and assessing policy outcomes, political scientists contribute to informed decision-making and the development of effective policies.
  • Enhancing Democratic Governance: Political science plays a vital role in promoting democratic governance by studying democratic processes, institutions, and challenges. Through their research, political scientists help identify and address issues related to political participation, electoral systems, and transparency, thus contributing to the strengthening of democratic systems worldwide.
  • Informing Citizenry and Political Engagement: Political science research enhances our understanding of political attitudes, social movements, and the factors that shape political behavior. By disseminating their findings through various channels, political scientists contribute to an informed citizenry, encouraging active political engagement, and fostering a more participatory democracy.
  • Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding: Political science research on international relations and conflict resolution helps policymakers and international organizations develop strategies for peaceful negotiations and diplomacy. By understanding the root causes of conflicts and studying peacebuilding initiatives, political scientists contribute to efforts aimed at promoting stability, security, and peaceful coexistence among nations.


While political science as a science may not adhere to the traditional notions of a natural or physical science, it possesses distinct scientific characteristics. Through its rigorous methodologies, theoretical frameworks, empirical research, and contributions to society, Political science as a science also contributes to our understanding of political phenomena and informs policymaking. As a science, it strives to provide systematic and evidence-based insights into complex political processes, facilitating informed decision-making and promoting the well-being of societies.

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